European Union

 As a rule, EU sanctions (also known as restrictive measures) are established as part of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), according to the objectives under Title V of the Nice Treaty on European Union, in particular art. 11. The EU may impose restrictive measures either for the implementation in the Community legal order of sanctions adopted by the UN Security Council, or as autonomous measures of the EU. The aim of autonomous EU restrictive measures is to deter human rights or international law violations, or to induce changes in policies that do not comply with the rule of law and democratic principles.

The Council of the European Union decides the application of international sanctions (restrictive measures) in the framework of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). 

According to art. 351 of TFEU in conjunction with art. 24 and 29 of TEU, the European Union takes over in the Community legal order the sanctions established by the UN Security Council under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. According to art. 75 and 352 of TFEU, the EU may also adopt autonomous measures, in addition to the UN sanctions or independent of them.

The sanctions of the EU Council, adopted by Decisions and detailed in Regulations, are binding for all Member States, which  must put in place the legal and institutional framework for the effective implementation of restrictive measures established in such legal acts.

EU sanctions regimes are useful instruments both in the fight against terrorism and for discouraging deterring the non-conforming conduct of certain countries’ ruling elites.