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Institutional Reform – The Treaty of Lisbon

The Lisbon Treaty (LT) is considerably innovating in the CDSP area, pursuing the goal of reinforcing the security dimension of the EU. Several changes introduced in the Treaty modify the former EDSP (meant to become now a Common Defence and Security Policy - CDSP) and are formalizing the transformation of the ESDP into the CFSP, while preserving its inter-governmental character and the unanimity principle.

Some of those changes, as well as the way they are transposed into concrete action, will become more clear when all the elements linked to the CSDP institutional architecture are ready. The special place and role of the HR for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the new European External Action Service also represent new facts.

Military capabilities will remain at the disposal of the Member States. They will continue to be offered by the Member States, on a voluntary basis,  as resources in the deployment of CDSP operations, but the concept of Permanent Structured Cooperation will allow the Member States that wish to, comply with the criteria and have concluded previous arrangements regarding military capabilities established by the 10th Protocol of the LT, regarding the development of capabilities for the CDSP, to engage in a superior military integration. The LT also introduces an initial trust fund for crisis management operations and  capacity improvement with EDA support.

Another important issue for an improved efficiency of the EU crisis management operations is, under the LT, the expansion of CDSP missions beyond the existent ones: humanitarian, search and rescue, peacekeeping, crisis management and peacemaking (also known as Petersberg tasks), by including common disarmament operations, military assistance and fighting against terrorism. The solidarity clause and the mutual assistance and support clause, in case aggression against an EU Member State occurs, are new elements introduced by the LT.